Plant love

This watercolor is a tribute to the beauty of plants.  The painting  “I love plants” was done with watercolor painting of an Anthurium clarinervium leaf.  Known in Mexico as Hoja de Corazón, this plant was perfect to depict a heart.  Lettering was done by digital calligraphy.

I love plants

Brains and Neurons

For today's post I decided to go for something more artistic, rather than accurate infographics. I did three different approaches inspired by the neuroscience field.

First, an image of a mouse brain. I used a sagittal mouse brain stained with Nissl staining as a reference but I changed some of the colors to make it more vibrant.

Mouse brain

My second piece is a painting of pyramidal neurons.  I wanted to do a more artistic representation and play more with digital touches, so I created a GIF of the image. My abstract representation of the neuronal firing and that’s why you see them lighting.

Pyramidal neurons firing

Pyramidal neurons firing

Blowfly vision neurons

Lastly, for my third painting I decided to go away from accuracy (compared to the first painting shown here) and have a piece of abstract art. This painting is inspired by the visual system of the male blowfly, which has a mushroom/tree shape. The image that you see is actually a color inverse image of the actual painting.

Comment below, what do you think about these different paintings? Which one do you like more, abstract or more realistic? 

Cellular portraits

I had the opportunity to teach a small class for kids, about the intersection of science and art, at the DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, two weeks ago. The main idea was to teach a couple of watercolor painting techniques while learning about the eukaryotic animal and plant cells.

What I did was to show a couple of cellular micrographs obtained with an Electron Microscope (see images for credits) so the kids could have an idea of what they actually look like. Later, I explained the importance of illustration in science, where it’s possible to enhance certain features for better understanding. 

Electron micrograph of an animal cell.  Image credit: UCSF School of Medicine.

Electron micrograph of a plant cell.  Image credit: University of Wisconsin, Botany department.

For the watercolor painting activity with the kids, I drew a plant and an animal cell that later were used as templates for the kids to create their own drawings to finally be watercolor painted. You can see below some examples of cells that I painted. I also added some labels so you have an idea of the parts of the cell. 

Plant cell.

Plant cell labeled

Parts of a cell.

Parts of a cell. Labeled.

Today I want to share with you my cell drawings so you can actually download them, print them and color them yourself! Nowadays it’s highly popular to do coloring pages activities and here’s my contribution so you can have fun. Please be aware that they are only for personal use.  All you have to do is download the PDFs here and here.

Once you have colored them, I would be very happy to see them and share them on my social media!

Can we understand memories at the molecular level?

When we talk about memories, we immediately associate it with some sort of neural activity. Learning a language includes being exposed to a massive quantity of new information, where our brains try to save as much as it can. But have you ever wondered how does this process happen?

A natural comparison would be to think of our brains as computers that save all the information that they receive. But that doesn’t happen quite often, sometimes we forget what we have learned unless we are actively exposed to it. Then, you might wonder, how do brain cells actually form memories?

Connections between brain cells happen through junctions called synapses. The word synapse comes from the Greek synapsis, meaning “conjunction”. Neurons are always communicating to each other through synapses, and the strengthening of these connections is associated with memory formation through a process called Long Term Potentiation (LTP). 

Synapses are classified in pre- and post- synapses, which correspond to the cell sending the message (pre-synapse) and the cell receiving the message (post-synapse). When a neuron tries to send a message, a change in the membrane voltage occurs. This change induces the release of the amino acid glutamate (the message), which activates a series of proteins located at the recipient cell called glutamate receptors. Once glutamate receptors are turned on, ions such as sodium are able to enter into the post synapse producing a change in postsynaptic membrane voltage. However, sodium itself doesn't trigger any machinery to strength memory formation.  In order to induce memory formation, calcium needs to enter the recipient cell to activate the machinery for LTP. Think about it as glutamate being the message from the pre-synapse and calcium representing the translated message at the post-synapse.  There is one kind of glutamate receptors, which are unique among other receptors because they are the only doors for calcium to get into the post-synapse. These unique receptors are called NMDA receptors and they are the main molecular character involved in memory formation.

The synapse. Communication between neurons occurs through the synapse. NMDA receptors trigger LTP by permeation of calcium.

NMDA receptors are quite peculiar not only because of their calcium permeability, but also because of their role as “coincidence detectors”, since they will only respond when simultaneous events are happening in both sides of the synapse. These two events are: 1) the cell sending the message has to release the glutamate, and 2) a change in the postsynaptic membrane voltage has to happen.  Once these two events occur in the synapse, the connection between the neurons is strengthened. Strengthening and weakening of neuronal bonds is a phenomenon called synaptic plasticity, where regulation of synapse communication represents our memories. Synaptic plasticity is frequently associated with remodeling and growing of new neural connections, which we could translate in terms of how many new words we can memorize while practicing a new language.

Since NMDA receptors are the molecular machinery of our memories, scientists have been interested in them since their classification back in late 1970’s. Studying the shape of these receptors has been useful to understand their mode of activation. Also, it has been found that when these receptors do not function properly they can lead to neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Research has been focused on the design of new drugs to target NMDA receptors involved in brain diseases. As the scientific knowledge advances, scientists understand better the molecular processes that lead to the formation of our memories. Its exciting to think that one day we could control what memories we want to remember based on how our NMDA receptors respond, and therefore being able to learn a new language in a more efficient way than we do today. 

Morris, R.G. (2013). NMDA receptors and memory encoding. Neuropharmacology 74, 32-40

Mayford, M., Siegelbaum, S.A., and Kandel, E.R. (2012). Synapses and memory storage. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4.

DNA Plant genome visualization

New genomes are being sequenced everyday. Therefore, nowadays, the amount of information keeps growing and only big data analysis allows the visualization of all of this material. However I wanted to give it a twist. I decided to visualize all the complete plant genome sequences showing something characteristic of each specimen (a leaf, a fruit, or a flower) with a traditional botanical painting, vintage style.

My source of information was Phytozome v11, which comprises a hub for plant genomes and gene family and data analysis. This painting includes 64 different plant specimens ranging from pineapple and grape to Arabidopsis and Volvox.

I hope you enjoy this old school painting that represents new data.

Source: Phytozome v11

Special thanks to Irene Liao (Duke University) for her help in regards to this painting.

Evelyn Witkin: Wonderful inspiration for women in science

This past Sunday, September 11th, was a special day for me. I had the opportunity to meet Dr. Evelyn Witkin at the 15th Women’s Partnership for Science Luncheon held at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

Every year, several female philanthropists from New York come to the event to support biomedical research in the lab. This year, the event had Evelyn Witkin as the guest speaker. She is a professor emerita at Rutgers University, and has been an important geneticist who recently was awarded the Lasker Basic Medical Research Award for her important work on DNA repair.

Through her talk entitled ”Serendipity in Spades: My crooked path to Cold Spring Harbor “ she told the story of how she joined the lab and her discoveries there. A particular story started when she was an undergraduate at New York University. Back in 1940, she and several students had a petition protesting against racism to black athletes. The university suspended all the students involved including her. So, she went up to Columbia University and asked Dr. Dobzhansky to join his lab. Later in 1944 she came to Cold Spring Harbor where she isolated UV radiation-resistance mutants of E. coli  (read more here and here), which became a main focus of her PhD research. She was a key researcher in the field of DNA repair in bacteria (read more here).

In her honor, I was commissioned to do a couple of paintings that were part of the event: invitations, party favors and a special gift for Evelyn.  I want to share with you two paintings that were part of the event, the first one is called “Secrets of Life” and it represents Mendel’s peas and classic genetics interlaced in the shape of DNA.

Secrets of Life

 The other painting is called “Autumn Colors” and it features a magical spot at Cold Spring Harbor, the view of the harbor through the gazebo during the fall. The original painting was a lab gift to Evelyn. 

Autumn Colors

Evelyn Witkin with her gift from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Photo: Constance Brukin.

She is a fantastic inspiration for women that are pursing a career in science. She was a pioneer scientist when it was not common to find women at the bench. So if you want to, or are currently pursing a career in science, whether you're a man or a woman, think of her as an inspiration to keep up on your dreams.

Structural Color: When light transforms into art

Have you ever thought about how nature creates truly masterpieces of art? Butterflies wings are a great example of nature’s beauty; full of unique colors, they have captivated the human eye for centuries.

But, what makes those beautiful colors?

Is a special pigment? Nope, there is no pigment involved.

So, then what is it? It is called Structural Color.

Here’s a short infographic about how butterflies get that phenomenal iridescent blue in their wings.